The branch of medication that deals with the care of Infants, children and adolescents is pediatrics. This term has roots within the Greek word pedo pais (a child) and iatros (healer). Pediatrics will covers the age group less than 18 years of age. A doctor who will focus on health care of children’s and adolescents may be a pediatrician. The goal of the specialty is to enable an infant to survive, need to be healthy, and attain the very best high potential of growth, development and intellectual accomplishment. Children's health encompasses approaches, interventions and techniques that preserve, protect, promote and restore health of children at individual and global population level.
Neonatology means knowledge of the human newborn. The term was coined by Alexander Schaffer, whose book on the subject, Diseases of the Newborn, was first published in 1960. The newborn is heir to so many problems, and his or her physiology is so unique and rapidly changing that all conditions of the newborn should come within the concern of the new and expanding discipline of neonatology concern of the new and extending order of neonatology.
The branch of medicine which will mainly focus the health condition of mother and fetus prior or during and shortly after pregnancy is called as perinatology and it is also known as Maternal–fetal medicine. The perinatology involves the prenatal tests and also provides treatment and performs the surgeries.
Pediatrics is a branch of medicine which deals with the healthcare of children but clinical pediatrics will plays a major role with the infant and children during and after the birth. The proper medication procedures will practiced by clinical pediatrician in order to eradicate the communal diseases. In clinical pediatrics the pediatricians will mainly focus on giving the vaccines like (Hepatitis B vaccine) to the children because there are few chances if the mother is effected with HBV then the baby must also get the HBIG shot within 12 hours.
Pediatric Health Care services for infants and children for network assets and qualities needs and hazard factors, and sociocultural sensitivities into procedures for consideration conveyance and clinical practice. Pediatric Health Care is considered as comprehensive pediatric practice designed for meetings the needs of the sick and healthy child.
The branch of medicine which deals with diseases of the heart in the growing and developing individual children is considered as pediatric cardiology. The pediatric cardiologists are the professional doctors who will diagnose and treat the children with cardiac (heart) conditions. If the children is with the congenital heart defect it means the child was born with the problem in the structure of his or her heart. The few heart diseases includes cardiovascular collapse in infancy, cardiac failure in infants and children, cyanosis in the newborn and beyond, children with heart murmurs, fetal cardiac abnormalities, pediatric cardiac transplantation, transposition of the great arteries etc.
Neonatal disorder is considered as unsettling influence of traditional condition of the body, organs and strange capability of Associate in the nursing child. Obstetricians assume a remarkable 0.5 to limit the quantity of child disorders. Variety of the generally determined clutters is known as immatureness, metabolism brokenness, birth injury, inherent distortions, child sickness and lysis issue.
Neonatal Death: The three major reasons for neonatal deaths in worldwide are diseases (36%, which incorporates sepsis/pneumonia, tetanus and diarrhea), pre-term (28%), and birth asphyxia (23%). There is some variation between nations depending upon their care configurations.
Neonatal Neurological Disorders: An infant can present with a variety of neurological issues that originate from conditions which affects the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and muscles. There are in excess of 600 neurological disorders that can happen all through an individual's life time, yet less neurological conditions happen in newborns. These disorders can be available during childbirth or happen not long after birth.
The treatment of Pediatric HIV disease is especially for newborn infants and adolescence is remained complicated and dangerous. The majority of children living who are affected with HIV are infected by mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) it may be during pregnancy, or during childbirth or through breastfeeding. It is sometimes referred to as ‘vertical transmission’ or ‘parent-to-child-transmission’.
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)
Breastfeeding is now responsible for mother-to-child transmission of HIV, When the formula feeding is considered to be not a viable option, the women can be greatly reduce the risk factors of transmitting HIV to their child at this stage in the event that they completely breastfeed. Orphans and vulnerable children are mainly targeting by the pediatric HIV.
Medical Management of HIV-Infected children includes reducing HIV-related mortality and morbidity, reducing HIV-related mortality and morbidity, Maintaining normal physical growth and neurocognitive development, improving quality of life, restoring and/or preserving immune function, minimizing drug-related toxicity, maximally and durably suppressing viral replication.
There is no other time in Life when the arrangement of satisfactory and adjusted nourishment is of more noteworthy significance than during infancy and childhood. During this dynamic period of life described by quick development, improvement and formative versatility, an adequate sum and suitable organization of substrates both in health and disease are of key significance for development, utilitarian results, for example, perception and safe reaction, and the metabolic programming of long health and well-being. Pediatric nutrition is nothing but the dietary needs of infants. A diet is lacking of essential calories, minerals, vitamins, or fluids are considered as inadequate. The Colostrum is one of the great sources of nutrition for a newborn baby, which is a thick yellow fluid. Infant nutrition requirements should be demands that providing essential substances which will support the normal growth, functioning, development, and resistance to infections and diseases in children. While adequate nutrition is important throughout childhood, it is crucial during the first 5 years of a child’s life particularly so, in the first 2–3 years when rapid growth occurs and when the child is entirely dependent on the mother as well as family for food.
Neonatal surgery is the lead and most testing part of pediatric surgery, which is the most youthful subspecialty of surgery. Neonatal surgery conveyed a survival rate of just 30% three decades prior. In the most recent decade there has been a important change in the situation. Prior acknowledgment and referral of these peculiarities, accessibility of intensive care, better, preoperative arranging, choice, and procedures have leads to the adjustment in the management. This review uncovers an over the board survival of 65-70% babies after medical procedure on about two thousand case over a multiyear time frame. It has a significant message that while pediatric surgery units extend, risk stratification of careful infants and their treatment in reasonable units is required to keep up and improve these figures to match international standards over the next decade.
Deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream of children is known as pediatric hypoglycemia. It is most common clinical problem in neonates and less common in infants and toddlers, and it is rare in older children. Insulin-treated type 1 diabetes is the most common mild or severe hypoglycemia in childhood. The glucose is considered as main source of fuel for the brain and child body. 70 to 140 milligrams oer deciliter is the normal range of blood glucose. The symptoms include Shakiness, Dizziness, Sweating, Hunger, Headache, Irritability, and Pale Skin.
Pediatric Neurology is filed takes place with the neurological problems in children. Approximately 20% of all children admitted are affected with Neurological signs or symptoms. The child neurological problems include Seizures and epilepsy. The febrile seizures affect 2-5% of children and most commonly seen in 6 months to 4 - 5 years of age. Risk factors includes Peak temperature during the lines, History of febrile seizure in the first- degree relatives, Neurodevelopmental delays, increased exposure to human herpes virus 6, and also vaccination with measles- mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus pertussis, and influenza vaccines.
In children the Common viral agents include viruses, herpes, simplex viruses, HIV, CMV, and hepatitis B. Intra partum infection or with hepatitis B which occurs from through an infected birth canal or by ascending infection if delivery is delayed after rupture of membranes then these viruses can less commonly be transmitted. Children are more prone susceptible to environmental risks than adults as a result of various reasons. During prenatal development or in the first four weeks of neonatal period these neonatal infections many be contracted by mother to child transmission in the birth canal during childbirth some neonatal infections are apparent soon after delivery of infant while the other may develop in the postnatal period.
Neonatal mortality declined all around world and in all areas however more gradually than mortality among kids matured 1–11 months or 1-4 years much of the time. Universally, the neonatal death rate fell by 51 percent from 37 deaths for every 1,000 live births in 1990 to 18 of every 2017, a littler decrease in mortality than among children aged months (63 percent). Except for the high-salary nations, neonatal mortality has fallen more rapidly since 2000 than in the period 1990-2000—worldwide neonatal profound quality has declined by 3.1 percent yearly since 2000 contrasted with 1.8 percent every year from 1990 to 2000. Usually, the decrease in the neonatal mortality was reduced than the decrease in post-neonatal mortality (age 1-11 months) and among children aged 1-4 years for both the 1990-2000 and 2000-2017 periods.
Neonatal conjunctivitis is considered as one of the commonest infections encountered in the newborn. A prospective study was conducted on all babies born over a period of one year. No prophylactic ocular medication was instilled routinely in newborns. Neonate develops purulent eye discharge were diagnosed to forming conjunctivitis. Eye drops chloromycetin were used for treatment and in case of no response, changed as per sensitivity report or to gentamicin eye drops. Oral erthromycin was given for dacryocystitis or when there was no response to topical therapy.
Numerous efforts have been put forth to combat childhood overweight and obesity, including standards, goals and objectives as well as various initiatives. Overweight and obesity is a global epidemic among children of all ages. Pre- and primary school children who are overweight and obese are more likely to be obese as adolescents and adults, as well as stand at an increased risk for poor health outcomes associated with excess weight.
Neonatal infection an ever increasing problem in the sick and vulnerable neonate which leads to Predisposition lies in the reduced immune defenses of the neonate – both specific and non-specific immunity. In neonates Specific immunity involves the action of immunoglobulin’s (IgG, IgA and IgM) and T lymphocytes.
The three types of Neonatal Infections Incudes
• Intrauterine (Congenital) TORCH
• Intrapartum (up to 1st week)
• Post-natal (nosocomial) – from 7 days of life
The Signs and Symptoms in neonate includes
• Nasal flaring
• Irregular respirations
There are significant contrasts among the preterm neonate, term neonate, and young infant child in drug disposition (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). Factors, for example, gestational age, body composition, postnatal age, concomitant drug therapy, acidemia/hypoxemia, and end-organ perfusion may influence and convolute drug therapy. Also, developmental issues relate to drug-receptor connections, receptor number, receptor partiality, and receptor guideline and tweak. The neonate is in a fast and persistent condition of maturation, which can impact essentially the restorative and harmful impacts of drug therapy. Our comprehension of the age-and disease- related contrasts in the preterm neonate continues to advance through detailed clinical pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic evaluations.
The skin infections and diseases in children and neonates are called as pediatric & neonatal dermatology. Atopic dermatitis is commonly known as eczema, a skin disorders which are seen in infants and children. The skin problems in children include Round Things, Tinea Corporis, Nummular Eczema, Psoriasis, Granuloma Annulare, Erythema Migrans, Tinea Capitis, Alopecia Areata, Light Spots, Pityriasis Alba, Vitiligo, Seborrheic Dermatitis, Atopic Dermatitis, Herpes Zoster.