Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological) disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness. Anyone can develop epilepsy. Epilepsy affects both males and females of all races, ethnic backgrounds and ages. Seizure symptoms can vary widely. Some people with epilepsy simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, while others repeatedly twitch their arms or legs. Having a single seizure doesn't mean you have epilepsy. At least two unprovoked seizures are generally required for an epilepsy diagnosis.
Autism is also called as Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Indicates to a wide range of illnesses characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication. Coming up to the Centers for Disease Control, autism affects an expected 1 in 59 children in the United States today. Prenatal viral infection has been known as the principal non-genetic cause of autism. Prenatal coverage to rubella or cytomegalovirus initiates the mother's immune response and may greatly increase the risk for autism in mice. Congenital rubella syndrome is the greatest convincing environmental cause of autism.
These are some of the characteristics of ASD:
Brain cancers happen when one type of cell transforms from its general characteristics. Once it gets transmuted, the cells grow and multiply in abnormal ways forming a cancerous growth of cell mass. The early symptoms includes severe headaches and drowsiness early in the morning, sudden convulsions with involuntary movements of a person's muscles, personality or memory changes, fatigue, nausea or vomiting and sleep problems. The main causes for most brain cancer are unknown. Quiet genetic factors, strong dose of radiation to the head, environmental toxins and consumption of tobacco all of these have been linked to brain cancer.
Parkinson's disease is an advanced nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start slowly, sometimes starting with a hardly noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also usually causes stiffness or slowing of movement. Parkinson's disease signs and symptoms can be unlike for everyone. Symptoms frequently begin on one side of your body and usually remain worse on that side, even after symptoms begin to affect both sides. Different people experience progress at different speeds, as well. Still, physicians have established stages that define how the disease progresses. These five stages of Parkinson's are known as the Hoehn and Yahr Scale used by physicians during the world to classify patients in research studies.
Neuro-immunology is a field of science which relates to neuroscience, the study of the nervous system is immunology, the study of the immune system together. “Despite the brain's status as an immune privileged site, a wide bi-directional communication takes place between the nervous and the immune system in both health and disease.”- US National Institute of Health. The aim of this season is to know more about Neuro-immunology and understanding the pathology of certain neurological diseases and for further developments in this research area.
Cognitive neuroscience is the field of study focusing on the neural substrates of mental processes. It is at the intersection of psychology and neuroscience, but also overlaps with physiological psychology, cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. It combines the theories of cognitive psychology and computational modeling with experimental data about the brain.
In humans, the life span of term birth to 2 years of age is characterized by rapid and dynamic brain development and plays a major role in cognitive development and risk of disorders. Enhancement in imaging studies have begun to indicate the growth trajectories of brain structure and function in the initial years after birth and their relationship to cognition and danger of neuropsychiatric disorders. The structural connectivity indicates anatomical connections linking a set of neural elements whereas functional connectivity is generally derived from time series observations, and describes patterns of statistical dependence along neural elements.
The brain stem connects the brain along with the spinal cord. It controls hunger and thirst and some of the most important body functions, those are the body temperature, blood pressure, and breathing. The brain and spinal cord are called as the central nervous system (CNS). The brain is the command midpoint for your body, and the spinal cord is the pathway for information sent by the brain to the body and from the body to the brain. Meninges are membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord. There are three layers of meninges: Dura mater (closest to the bone), Arachnoid loosely around the brain, Pia mater is closely attached to the brain and spinal cord surface. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) cushions the brain and spinal cord.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the usage of many procedures to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function, or pharmacology of the nervous system. It is a quite different discipline within medicine, neuroscience, and psychology. Structural neuroimaging deals with the shape of the brain (e.g. shows difference between unlike tissues: cerebrospinal fluid, grey matter, white matter).
Psychiatry includes qualified medical doctors who prescribe medications, and they spend much of their time with patients on medication sector as a course of treatment. Psychology focuses widely on psychotherapy and treating emotional and mental suffering in patients with behavioral intervention. Nowadays genetics has been one of the important driving forces in psychiatric research.
Psychosomatic medicine contributes interdisciplinary evaluation and management in medical field exploring the relationships along social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes and superiority of life in humans and animals. A Psychosomatic Medicine is a subspecialty of psychiatry which is mostly used in diagnosis and treatment of psychiatry disorders and also symptoms in chronic medically suffering ill patients. Clinical conditions where mental methods act as major role affecting medical outcomes are areas where psychosomatic medicine has competence.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a pure, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid has three main functions: It protects brain and spinal cord from trauma, deliveries nutrients to nervous system tissue, removes waste products from cerebral metabolism. CSF leaks occur through a communication between the facing of the brain and the nose. These communications may occur spontaneously or result from trauma or earlier sinonasal surgery. Complications may occur if the cause is surgery or trauma. Infections after surgery or trauma can lead to meningitis and serious complications, such as swelling of the brain. Maximum CSF leaks are a complication of a spinal tap or surgery.
Depression (main depressive disorder) is a communal and severe medical illness that harmfully affects how you feel the way you think and how you act. Fortuitously, it is also remediable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in deeds once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s capability to function at work and at home.
Maximum number of people will think of neurosurgery as brain surgery — but it is much more! It is the medical specialty worried with the diagnosis and treatment of patients with injury to, or diseases/disorders of the brain, spinal cord and spinal column, and peripheral nerves within total parts of the body. The specialty of neurosurgical care includes both geriatric and pediatric patients. Depend upon the nature of the injury or disease a neurological surgeon may provide surgical and/or non-surgical care.
Neuro-degeneration is the procedure by which a part of your brain dies as a result of trauma or disease. Aging is the overpowering risk factor for developing any of a number of phenotypically separate neurodegenerative diseases, and the enhancing prevalence, along with human life span, represents a major scientific challenge for the biomedical research community and a rising public health problem.
Brain Nursing is the guard, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of pain through the diagnosis and treatment of human responses, and encouragement in health care for individuals, families, communities, and populations. The aim of this session is to know nursing activities that have the potential to maximize outcomes for severe brain disorders.
Pediatric neurology or child neurology refers to a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of neurological conditions in neonates (newborns), infants, children and adolescents. The discipline of child neurology encompasses diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, muscles and blood vessels that affect individuals in these age groups.
Dementia is a general term for diseases and conditions categorized by a decline in memory, language, problem-solving and other thinking skills that affect a person's ability to perform regular activities. Memory loss is an illustration.
Stages of dementia
Neuropharmacology is the division of pharmacology which deals with the action of drugs in the nervous system. Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Molecular neuropharmacology are the subdivisions of neuropharmacology. Behavioral neuropharmacology is the study about how drugs affect human behavior (neuropsychopharmacology), and addiction affect human brain. Behavioral and Molecular fields are very carefully connected, since both are concerned with the interactions. In neuropharmacology we also know about the drugs and their targets that influence the functions of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) in health and disease.
Alzheimer's disease is an advanced disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and dies. Alzheimer's disease is the most often cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disturbs a person's ability to function independently. Mental health is the stage of psychological well-being or a lack of mental illness. It is the state of somebody who is "functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment"
Animal models plays major role for our understanding of the details of brain development. This session will analysis the history of animal models and the emergence of many useful models for developmental studies today. Comparative anatomical reports start with Aristotle and his dissections of various animals, but it was not until the 19th century that the use of postmortem and alive animal models became common.
Computational systems are useful in neuroscience in so many ways. For example, they may be used to construct maps of brain structure and activation or to describe brain processes mathematically. The nervous system is the net of nerve cells and fibers which transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body. Brain Engineering is about using scientific methods to understand and typical the nervous system and to use this knowledge to engineer systems that cooperate with augment or mimic nervous system functionality.
Drug addiction is a brain disease that is categorized by compulsive drug seeking, despite of its harmful consequences. It causes changes in the normal activity of the nervous system damaging the nerve tissues, killing neurons and it leads to deregulation of neural system. Thus uncontrolled drug use results in toxicity of brain. Some of the behavioral effects of drug addiction include Paranoia, Aggressiveness, Impulsiveness, and Loss of Self-Control. Prescription drugs that are frequently abused are sleep medicines and opioids. In reality, drug addiction is a multifaceted disease, and quitting usually takes more than good intentions or a strong will. Drugs change the brain in ways that make quitting hard, even for those who want to. Luckily, researchers know more than ever about how drugs affect the brain and have found actions that can help people recover from drug addiction and lead productive lives.
Anxiety is your body's natural response to stress. It's a sense of fear or apprehension about what's to come. The 1st day of school, while going to a job interview, or giving a speech may cause most people to feel fearful and nervous
Diagnostic tests and processes are vital tools that help physicians confirm or rule out the presence of a neurological disorder or other medical condition. Tests and techniques such as Chorionic villus sampling, Pre-symptomatic testing, Biomarkers, Molecular diagnostics, Neuroimaging and Human Neuroimaging are usually used to diagnose.
Neurophysiology is a medical subject of neuroscience and physiology which deals with the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous system which includes cellular networks, sub-cellular sections, and also single cells. This study regularly uses electrophysiological or molecular biological tool to display the function of nerves and the total system related to it. In some of the current neurophysiology articles it has been stated that the decided output to do any action in frontal cortex results from the processing of several inputs from the environment, the internal milieu and from the other segments of cerebral cortex.
The main aim of this session is to understand the Novel Treatment strategies like Neurocircuitry of Inspiration, Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Research, Anti-amyloid therapy, Real-world Valuation, Prediction, and Treatment, Molecular Neuropsychiatry and Future research instructions in brain disorders.