Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Examples of infectious diseases are Flu, Measles, Dengue, smallpox, tuberculosis, cholera, HIV and AIDS, Meningitis, Malaria, etc. The specialty of these emerging infections since the past century can be discussed at Infectious diseases conference 2020 which is scheduled in London, UK.
Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases are collectively called pathogens. Pathogens cause disease either by disrupting the body's normal processes or stimulating the immune system to produce a defensive response, resulting in high fever, inflammation, fatigue, diarrhea, and other symptoms. Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of death worldwide.
Nosocomial infections are the infections caused in the hospital premises. Organisms that are resistant to antibiotics potentially cause these infections. A nosocomial infection is specifically one that was not present or incubating before the patient's being admitted to the hospital but occurring within 72 hours after admittance to the hospital.
Children are more susceptible to environmental risks than adults because of many reasons. Children are constantly growing and so and they eat more food, drink more water, and breathe more air as compared to adults. They have increased vulnerability to illness. These contagious diseases are mostly caused by microscopic organisms, infections, and parasites. A widespread variety of immunologic illnesses are caused by micro-organisms, infections, pathogens, bacteria, and parasites. Pediatric specialists may understand the symptoms, signs, causes, side effects, medicines, and results related to infectious diseases in children
Bloodstream infections occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream from either a primary focus of infection in an organ, a wound or via an indwelling or implanted device. Bloodstream infections are associated with symptoms such as hypertension and fever. Bloodstream infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality despite the availability of broad-spectrum and effective antimicrobials and significant advances in supportive care.
Ebola viruses cause a severe and often deadly illness known as Ebola virus disease. It occurs very rarely which results in death and outbreak. Ebola viral infections symptoms include fever, muscle pain, sore throat, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, rashes and decreased function of the liver and kidneys. No drugs are currently available to treat Ebola, Dengue, or Zika viruses, which infect millions of people every year and result in severe illness, birth defects, and even death.
Urinary tract infections are caused when the bacteria get into the urine and travel up to the bladder. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as a kidney infection. Symptoms include light fevers, pain in the lower abdomen, feels like urinating more often. Kidney infections may also often cause nausea and vomiting. E. coli bacteria cause the majority of UTIs, but many other bacteria, fungi, and parasites may also cause UTIs.
HIV is a disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It's a virus that breaks down certain cells in your immune system and develops a disease called AIDS. Infectious diseases are diseases caused by organisms like viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. These can cause familiar infectious diseases such as the common cold, flu, and warts. They also cause severe illnesses such as smallpox, cholera, diphtheria, Infectious diarrhea, etc.
A surgical site infection is an infection that occurs after surgery in the part of the body where the surgery took place. Surgical site infections can sometimes be superficial infections involving the skin only. Other surgical site infections are more severe and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material. These infections are caused by germs. The most common of these include the bacteria Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Gram-negative bacilli.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Tuberculosis is spread when a person with an active infection coughs, sneezes, speaks or sings, and then a person nearby breathes in the bacteria. It usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the kidneys, spine, and brain.
Hepatitis is defined as the inflammation in the liver. Many conditions cause hepatitis, but half of the causes are due to hepatitis viruses. There are several types of hepatitis viruses including types A, B, C, D, E, and possibly G. Types A, B, and C are the most common. The signs and symptoms of acute viral hepatitis result from damage to the liver and are similar regardless of the hepatitis virus responsible. Patients may experience a flu-like illness, and general symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, and, less commonly, rash and joint pain. Sometimes jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes will develop.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have malaria usually feel very sick, with a high fever and shaking chills. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still common in tropical and subtropical countries. World health officials are trying to reduce the incidence of malaria by distributing bed nets to help protect people from mosquito bites as they sleep. Scientists around the world are working to develop a vaccine to prevent malaria.
Animal infectious diseases also known as zoonotic diseases. Animals are an important food source and provide meat, dairy, and eggs. These animal diseases are caused by harmful germs like viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Few zoonotic diseases are transferred from animals to humans. Examples: Animal flu, anthrax, bird flu, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, Campylobacter infection, cat scratch fever, cryptosporidiosis.
Foodborne, commonly called food poisoning, and waterborne illnesses are conditions caused by eating or drinking food or water that is contaminated by microbes or the toxins they produce. The most frequent causes of food or water-borne illnesses are bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Symptoms vary with the causative agent, and range from slight abdominal pain and nausea to retching, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever, and diarrhea. Fever, chills, headache, malaise and muscular pains may accompany gastrointestinal symptoms. Vomiting, with or without diarrhea, abdominal cramps and fever are common symptoms of viral disease or staphylococcal intoxication.
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections you can get by having sex with someone who has an infection. These infections are usually passed from person to person through vaginal intercourse. They can also be passed through anal sex, oral sex, or skin-to-skin contact. More than 9 million women in the United States are diagnosed with an STI each year. Women often have more serious health problems from STIs than men, including infertility. The organisms (bacteria, viruses or parasites) that cause sexually transmitted diseases may pass from person to person in blood, semen, or vaginal and other bodily fluids. Sometimes these infections can be transmitted nonsexual, such as from mother to infant during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.
Many infectious diseases have similar signs and symptoms. Samples of body fluid can help in the diagnosis of the particular microbe that's causing the illness. These methods include blood tests, urine tests, throat swabs, stool sample, spinal tap. This helps the doctor to treat the disease. Knowing what type of germ causing the illness makes easier for the doctor to choose an appropriate treatment. Antibiotics, Antivirals, Antifungals, Anti-parasites are used for medications.
Inflammation is a defense mechanism in the body. The immune system recognizes damaged cells, irritants, and pathogens, and it begins the healing process. When something harmful or irritating affects a part of our body, there is a biological response to try to remove it. The signs and symptoms of inflammation can be uncomfortable but show that the body is trying to heal itself. Chronic inflammation can eventually cause several diseases and conditions, including some cancers.
Rare infectious diseases are caused by external factors like genetically or through the environment. Rare disease affects a small percentage of the world population. In some countries, rare diseases are called orphan diseases. Whose rarity means there's a lack of a market large enough to gain support and resources for discovering treatments for it, except by the government granting economically advantageous conditions to creating and selling such treatments. Some of the rare diseases are rat-bite fever, seal pox, scarlet fever, meningococcal diseases, bubonic plague.
Infections, particularly known as ‘healthcare-acquired infections’ which means that patients/clients acquire the infection while receiving care from health services. This is one of the biggest challenges facing health services throughout the world. There are many kinds of infections that patients/clients can acquire while accessing health care services. Some of the infection control practices include hand hygiene, prevention of surgical site infections, Infection control standard, contact, droplet and airborne precautions and quarantine of contacts.