Endodontics encompasses the practice of the basic and clinical sciences of normal dental pulp, the etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the dental pulp along with associated periradicular conditions.
Endodontics has evolved tremendously in the past decade and its applications have immensely improved the quality of dental treatment. In clinical terms, Endodontics involves either preserving part, or all of the dental pulp in health, or removing all of the pulp in irreversible disease. This includes teeth with irreversibly inflamed and infected pulpal tissue. Not only does Endodontics involve treatment when a dental pulp is present, but also includes preserving teeth which have failed to respond to non-surgical endodontic treatment, or for teeth that have developed new lesions, i.e., when root canal re-treatment is required, or periradicular surgery.
The main purpose of Endodontic treatment is to remove the diseased pulp, clean and shape the root canal system, disinfect the contaminated root canals, and then Obturate the root canal system to prevent re-infection and promote periradicular healing. The aim is to have radiographic evidence of healing, with no postoperative lesions present, and restored periradicular health if preoperative lesions were present. The main reason for dental pulpal problems has been related to bacterial contamination of the root canals. Therefore, significantly reducing the bacterial load within the root canal system, and then filling the canals with an inert obturating material aid in preventing bacterial re-infection.