Dementia is a syndrome, usually of a chronic or progressive nature in which there is deterioration in cognitive function (i.e. the ability to process thought) beyond what might be expected from normal ageing. It affects memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgement. Consciousness is not affected. The impairment in cognitive function is commonly accompanied, and occasionally preceded, by deterioration in emotional control, social behavior, or motivation. Dementia results from a variety of diseases and injuries that primarily or secondarily affect the brain, such as Alzheimer's disease or stroke.
Engagement in meaningful activities is one of the critical elements of good dementia care underscoring that such opportunities can not only help residents preserve their functional abilities but enhance their overall quality of life. Dementia Care Practice Recommendations were developed to better define quality care across all care settings, and throughout the disease course. They are intended for professional care providers who work with individuals living with dementia and their families in residential and community-based care settings.
The current diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is made by clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging assessments. Routine structural neuroimaging evaluation has long been based on nonspecific features such as atrophy, which is a late feature in the progression of the disease. More recently, a variety of imaging modalities, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral metabolism, have shown characteristic changes in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease in prodromal and even presymptomatic states.
Alzheimer’s disease causes brain cells to die, so the brain works less well over time. This changes how a person acts. The common behaviors includes Angry Outbursts and Physical Aggression, Hand-wringing, Pacing and Rocking, Accusing Loved Ones of Wrongdoing and Hallucinating, Repeating Stories and Leaving the House Unassisted, Sleep Problems and Sundowning.
To diagnose Alzheimer's dementia, doctors conduct tests to assess memory impairment and other thinking skills, judge functional abilities, and identify behavior changes. They also perform a series of tests to rule out other possible causes of impairment.
In Alzheimer’s disease, brain cells start to deteriorate. The body attempts to stop this process by producing a protein called amyloid. However, amyloid deposits build up in the brain, leading to further deterioration. These deposits of amyloid are referred to as "plaques" and cause the brain cells to shrivel up and form "tangles", which in turn lead to changes in the brain structure and cause the brain cells to die. The formation of plaques and tangles also prevents the production of some important brain chemicals, called neurotransmitters. Over time the loss of brain cells causes the brain to shrink.
While there is no known cause for Alzheimer's disease, some research studies have indicated that the following factors may play an important role in the development of the condition: Genetic factors, Environmental factors, Lifestyle factors.
There are no proven ways to prevent the development of Alzheimer's disease. However, there is epidemiological evidence to suggest that leading a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Regular physical activity and exercise may have a general protective effect on brain health and may slow progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although there are no specific dietary specifications for Alzheimer's, a Mediterranean-style diet (ie: plant foods such as vegetables, fruits, beans, whole grains, nuts, olives and olive oil, along with some cheeses, yoghurt, fish, poultry and eggs) may reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, and has the added benefit of lowering cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by cognitive and behavioral impairment that significantly interferes with social and occupational functioning. It is an incurable disease with a long preclinical period and progressive course. In AD, plaques develop in the hippocampus, a structure deep in the brain that helps to encode memories, and in other areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in thinking and making decisions. Whether plaques themselves cause AD or whether they are a by-product of the AD process remains unknown. The following image depicts one of the cardinal neuroimaging findings in AD – hippocampal atrophy.
Neurodegenerative diseases occur when nerve cells in the brain or peripheral nervous system lose function over time and ultimately die. Although treatments may help relieve some of the physical or mental symptoms associated with neurodegenerative diseases, there is currently no way to slow disease progression and no known cures. The risk of being affected by a neurodegenerative disease increases dramatically with age. Population-wide health improvements have increased lifespan which, along with a larger generation of aging Americans, means more people may be affected by neurodegenerative diseases in coming decades. This creates a critical need to improve our understanding of what causes neurodegenerative diseases and develop new approaches for treatment and prevention.
Vascular dementia is a common type of dementia caused by reduced blood flow to the brain. Vascular dementia, also known as multi-infarct dementia is the second most common cause of dementia in older people. Because it has a lower profile than Alzheimer's, many people don't suspect vascular dementia when forgetfulness becomes problematic. It's also difficult to diagnose so it's difficult to know exactly how many people suffer from vascular dementia. Some symptoms may be similar to those of other types of dementia. Memory loss is common in the early stages of Alzheimer's, but is not usually the main early symptom of vascular dementia.
Without clinical trials, there can be no better treatments, no prevention and no cure for Alzheimer's disease. Clinical trials area unit inquired concerning examinations semiconductor diode in people to determine if medicines area unit protected and viable. while not clinical analysis and therefore the help of human volunteers, there is no higher medications, no compensatory action and no cure for Alzheimer’s complaint. Clinical trials area unit sometimes alluded to as clinical examinations; the terms area unit oftentimes utilized reciprocally, nonetheless their area unit unnoticeable contrasts between them. Clinical trials look at new intercessions or medications to avoid, acknowledge or treat infection. A clinical report is any variety of clinical analysis as well as people, paying very little heed as to whether it's Associate in Nursing an intercession. Clinical examinations will likewise take a goose at completely different components of care, for instance, enhancing personal satisfaction.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common multifactorial diseases, including a range of abnormal cellular/molecular processes occurring in different regions of the brain. This disease is considered to be a major contributor to dementia in the elderly people. The pathophysiology involves accumulation of extracellular plaques containing the β-amyloid protein which is generated by the breakdown of the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain. Another mechanism involves formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The AD can be classified into two types, familial AD (FAD) and sporadic AD (SAD) based on heritability apart from this the early-onset AD (EOAD) and late-onset AD (LOAD) forms are based on the age of onset. Some proteins, such as APOE, APP, BACE (b-amyloid cleaving enzyme), secretases, PS1/2 and tau proteins are reported in AD brain and have been correlated with disease. It is still unclear whether this disease comprises genetic or environmental factors or both. Many palliative drugs are available for the disease but there is still thirst for curative drugs with greater efficacy. It is required to understand the key factors involved in disease progression and their suitability as drug targets for discovering new drugs against Alzheimer's disease.
Animal models for Alzheimer’s sickness it's necessary to have faith in the human composition and what's being shapely in terms of the animal composition. The moderator, Bradley Hyman, academic of neurology at Harvard grad school, same that animal models of Alzheimer’s sickness, supported the biology of the sickness and therefore the closely connected frontotemporal dementedness, replicate a minimum of several the pathology. Researchers are undefeated at modeling terribly specific aspects of Alzheimer’s sickness within the mouse (e.g., plaques, tangles). though these are incomplete models of the human sickness, they need been well received within the field as doubtless relevant models to be used in drug discovery.
Patients with Alzheimer’s sickness can show each amyloidopathy and tauopathy, but scientists typically focus, in an exceedingly theory manner, on one or the opposite in associate degree animal model. A participant additional that although the anatomy within the mouse is completely different than the human, mutant alphabetic character mice are comparatively smart models in this they recapitulate tau-dependent neurodegeneration. This has diode several corporations to specialize in antibodies that block tau-dependent neurodegeneration in these mouse models.
This session includes Transgenic models, pharmacologic and lesion models, Natural and semi natural models, Primate models, equine fish models, Animal models of human psychological feature aging, Development of latest animal models, biology of travel models, Protein-protein interactions, moral problems with animal models.
The danger of creating dementia increments with age, as does the danger of growing long-haul conditions, for example, joint inflammation, diabetes, and cerebrovascular or respiratory issues. 'Seniority' happens prior to individuals with learning incapacities, and this gathering is especially defenseless against intellectual impedance. Individuals with dementia in this manner regularly have coinciding issues or comorbidities. Whenever 25% of patients in a general doctor's facility may have dementia and this gathering is at higher danger of readmission and passing than different patients conceded with similar conditions – this implies the distinguishing proof and care of individuals with dementia is an urgent obligation regarding medical caretakers.
• Encouraging exercise
• Encouraging socialization
• Encouraging mental incitement
• Encouraging important action and subjective incitement
• Encouraging individuals with dementia to look after freedom
• Providing support for families and careers
Dementia may be a progressive, irreversible decline in knowledge that, by definition, impacts on a patient pre-existing level of functioning. The clinical syndrome of dementia has many etiologies of that Alzheimer’s unwellness (AD) is that the commonest.
Drug development in AD relies on evolving pathophysiological theory. unwellness modifying approaches embody the targeting of amyloid process, aggregation of alphabetic character, internal secretion communication, neuro-inflammation and neurochemical pathology, with efforts to this point yielding abandoned hopes and current promise. reflective its dominance on the pathophysiological stage the amyloid cascade is central to several of the rising drug therapies.