Sessions

  • Climate change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth. Climatology, the science of Climate and its relation to plant and animal life, is important in many fields, including agriculture, aviation, medicine, botany, zoology, geology, and geography. Changes in Climate affect, for example, the plant and animal life of a given area. Climatology, the science of Climate and its relation to plant and animal life, is important in many fields, including agriculture, aviation, medicine, botany, zoology, geology, and geography. Changes in Climate affect, for example, the plant and animal life of a given area.

  • The global carbon cycle operates through a variety of response and feedback mechanism, responses of the carbon cycle to changing CO2 concentrations. Anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean is primarily governed by ocean circulation and carbonate chemistry. Changes in marine biology brought about by changes in calcification at low pH could increase the clean uptake of CO2 by a few percentage points.

  • Physical, substance and organic stressors are real parts of the condition that, when changed by human or different exercises, can bring about corruption to regular assets. Waterfront environments the real dangers to biodiversity are various, with atmosphere stressors being very much recorded as a noteworthy risk. Because of present populace development and improvement, seaside regions worldwide are under in-wrinkling stress. Beachfront ranges are key central focuses for a way of life and economy. Waterfront administration will be pointed essentially at neighborhood government, which is in charge of overseeing extensive ranges of open seaside arrive and shorelines, and safeguarding the qualities and convenience that make a significant number of these territories so valuable.

  • Climate change threatens human health and well-being in many ways, including impacts from increased extreme weather events, wildfire, decreased air quality, and illnesses transmitted by food, water, and diseases carriers such as mosquitoes and ticks. Climate change, together with other natural and human-made health stressors, influences human health and disease in numerous ways. Some existing health threats will intensify and new health threats will emerge. Not everyone is equally at risk. Important considerations include age, economic resources, and location. Changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations and other drivers alter the global climate and bring about myriad human health consequences.

  • Climate change is one of the defining challenges of the 21st century, along with global population, poverty alleviation, environmental degradation and global security. The problem is that ‘climate change’ is no longer just a scientific concern, but encompasses economics, sociology, geopolitics, national and local politics, law, and health just to name a few. But with so many other problems in the world should we care about climate change? What we are finding is that if we do not produce win-win solutions then climate change will make all our other problems worse.

  • Global climate change poses a threat to the well-being of humans and other living things through impacts on ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, capital productivity, and human health. This paper briefly surveys recent research on the economics of climate change, including theoretical insights and empirical findings that offer guidance to policy makers. Scientists estimated that, if temperatures only rose 2 C, global gross domestic product would fall 15%. If temperatures rose to 3 C, global GDP would fall 25%. If nothing is done, temperatures will rise by 4 C by 2100. Global GDP would decline by more than 30% from 2010 levels. That's worse than the Great Depression, where global trade fell 25%. The only difference is that it would be permanent.

  • Climate change raises significant social, environmental and legal challenges. The governance system applying to climate change is complex and multi-level. A central issue in international law and policy is how countries of the world should allocate the burden of addressing global climate change. Countries around the world are taking important domestic actions to help tackle the issue of climate change.

  • The key findings from separate assessments of biodiversity, ecosystem structure and function, ecosystem services, climate-change impacts in the context of other stressors, and societal responses to change. A major gap exists in integrating climate projections and social–ecological vulnerability analyses at scales that matter, which has affected local-scale adaptation planning and actions. an ecological assessment of the impacts of these climate forecasts on coral reefs. Establishing the intended purpose of a set of indicators and using indicators to understand attribution or cause-and-effect relationships. Tying indicators to a conceptual model of ecological function and ecosystem services and designating the parties involved with the indicator selection process  and achieving buy-in from users and establishing the indicators’ association with management decisions.

  • Climate and climate-related hazards such as floods, storms, and droughts have served as trigger events for more than 75% of the disasters that have occurred globally over the past decade. Proportionately, these disasters affect the least developed countries most intensely, proving to be especially harmful to poverty stricken populations.

  • Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid dangerous climate change. It has been proposed as a way to slow the atmospheric and marine accumulation of greenhouse gases, which are released by burning fossil fuels. CO2 sequestration has the potential to significantly reduce the level of carbon that occurs in the atmosphere as CO2 and to reduce the release of CO2 to the atmosphere from major stationary human sources, including power plants and refineries.

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities. In 2013, CO2 accounted for about 82% of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth's carbon cycle (the natural circulation of carbon among the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and animals). Carbon dioxide is constantly being exchanged among the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface as it is both produced and absorbed by many microorganisms, plants, and animals. However, emissions and removal of CO2 by these natural processes tend to balance.

  • These shorter- term variations are mostly due to natural causes, and do not contradict our fundamental understanding that the long-term warming trend is primarily due to human-induced changes in the atmospheric levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Emerging economy nations are actively seeking to identify opportunities and related financial, technical, and policy requirements to move toward a low carbon growth path. Extreme climate events such as aridity, drought, flood, cyclone and stormy rainfall are expected to leave an impact on human society. They are also expected to generate widespread response to adapt and mitigate the sufferings associated with these extremes. Societal and cultural responses to prolonged drought include population dislocation, cultural separation, habitation abandonment, and societal collapse. A typical response to local aridity is the human migration to safer and productive areas.

  • Recent climate changes and observed data indicate that near-surface air temperatures and precipitation are increasing globally. In response to twentieth century warming, glaciers have been retreating and snow cover extent has decreased. Arctic sea-ice thickness during the summer and early autumn has declined and tide gauge data show that sea level has been rising. Observational evidence indicates that regional changes in climate have already affected biological systems in many parts of the world.

  • Green House Gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) absorb heat (infrared radiation) emitted from Earth’s surface. Increases in the atmospheric concentrations of these gases cause Earth to warm by trapping more of this heat. Human activities—especially the burning of fossil fuels since the start of the Industrial Revolution—have increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations by about 40.This has been accompanied by warming of the ocean, a rise in sea level, a strong decline in Arctic sea ice, and many other associated climate effects. Much of this warming has occurred in the last four decades. Detailed analyses have shown that the warming during this period is mainly a result of the increased concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Continued emissions of these gases will cause further climate change, including substantial increases in global average surface temperature and important changes in regional climate.

  • Climate Changes in ocean systems generally occur over much longer time periods than in the atmosphere, where storms can form and dissipate in a single day. Interactions between the oceans and atmosphere occur slowly over many months to years, and so does the movement of water within the oceans, including the mixing of deep and shallow waters. Thus, trends can persist for decades, centuries, or longer. For this reason, even if greenhouse gas emissions were stabilized tomorrow, it would take many more years—decades to centuries—for the oceans to adjust to changes in the atmosphere and the climate that have already occurred.

  • Air pollution changes our planet’s climate, but not all types of air pollution have the same effect. There are many different types of air pollution. Some types cause global warming to speed up. Others cause global warming to slow down by creating a temporary cooling effect for a few days or weeks. Read on the learn more about the pollution that causes Earth to warm and the pollution that causes Earth to cool. Beyond that, we are emitting such a high level of pollutants that they are causing serious global environmental problems: climate change and ozone depletion. The human race has become capable of affecting the atmosphere that encircles the Earth, and the very planet itself.

  • Energy is deposited in a range of energy sources, which can be non-renewable or renewable. Renewable sources of energy are those that can be refilled in a short period of time, as opposed to non-renewable sources of energy. The use of renewable sources of energy is less polluting, compared to that of non-renewable sources. Specifically, increased dependence on renewable sources of energy is a key element of efforts to avert climate change. Renewable sources of energy today make an irrelevant contribution to total energy use, compared to that of non-renewable sources. A range of barriers hamper the widespread deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  • The immensity of global warming can be discouraging and depressing. What can one person, or even one nation, do on their own to slow and reverse climate change? The good news is that we know exactly what needs to be done to stop climate change - and the technologies we need already exist. With the right policies at national and local levels, we would be able to deploy them on a large scale.

  • Rising global temperatures and the effects of climate change are huge and environmental challenges. Satellite measurements of Earth’s changing temperature, sea levels, atmospheric gases, declining ice and forest cover for example, are one of the main ways of providing the scientific community with the data they need to improve our understanding of the Earth system and predict its future.

  • Sustainability broadly means balancing economic, social and environmental systems so that one ‘system’ does not adversely impact the other two. Long term changes in the average weather patterns/ temperature. Often used interchangeably with ‘Global Warming “or “Green House Gas Effect” phrases and is linked to manmade acceleration of the amount of CO2 produced globally.

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